Having served a single term in the Queensland Legislative Assembly (1932–35), Arthur Fadden entered the House of Representatives as a member of the Country Party following a by-election for the seat of Darling Downs in 1936.

A backbencher during the Lyons government, Fadden entered the government of Robert Menzies as a junior Minister (Supply and Development, and later Air, and Civil Aviation). Following the return of the United Australia Party/Country Party coalition government after the October 1940 general election, albeit with the support of two independents, Fadden was promoted to Treasurer. On ascending to the leadership of the Country Party, appointment as deputy Prime Minister was soon to follow.

In August 1941 Menzies resigned as Prime Minister, and was replaced by Fadden, who served until 7 October 1941 when the Independents, who provided his government's majority, agreed instead to support the John Curtin-led Labor Party. This brought about a change of government.

Remaining as Country Party leader, Fadden again became Deputy Prime Minister and Treasurer when the Menzies Liberal-Country Party government returned to power in December 1949. He held both posts until his retirement in December 1958.

Initiated: Caledonia Lodge No. 737 Scottish Constitution in Queensland on 20 July 1915 (now No. 34 on the register of the United Grand Lodge of Queensland).